This study addresses the encoding of predication in language, specifically the structure of non-verbal predication in Hungarian and the combination of nonverbal predicates with the verb in syntax. It provides evidence that complex
predicates are created in syntax.
It is argued that Hungarian copular clauses have a uniform base-generated structure, where the copula has a Small Clause complement and the predicate of the SC forms a complex predicate with the copula. Existential and locative sentences have the same underlying structure, however, their surface word order is different and there is no complex predicate formation. Predicative
adpositional phrases (PPs) also form complex predicates with verbs other than the copula. It is shown that particles are part of the extended projection of PPs, which contain projections for place and path denoting postpositions and a functional projection for articles. Particle movement to the preverbal position is therefore one of the instances of a predicative PP forming a complex predicate with the verb. Resultative and depictive secondary predicates and predicative complements of consider-type verbs are also claimed to involve
a SC, with depictives being different from the other two in that they are in the structural focus position in Hungarian while the others undergo predicate movement.
Predicate movement is analyzed as a way of complex predicate formation in overt syntax. Analyses previously suggested in the literature are considered, which take predicate movement and complex predicate formation either to be semantically motivated or to be a result of independently motivated movement of an internal argument.